Neutralization of LC- and RC-Disturbances with Left-Handed and NGD Effects

Main Article Content

B. Ravelo

Abstract

This paper focus is on the neutralization technique of the unwanted physical disturbances in the radio frequencies (RF) and digital electronic structures. Most of parasitic effects induced in these systems can be modeled by RC- and LC- passive networks. For canceling these disturbing effects, we can proceed with the transfer function neutralization in the considered operating frequency bands. This neutralization concept is developed by using first, a left-handed (LH) and negative group delay (NGD) circuits inspired from metamaterials. The fundamental theoretical approach illustrating the RC- and LC-effects transfer function neutralization is described. Synthesis relations enabling to determine the elements of the LH and NGD circuit correctors in function of the perturbation parameters are established. Numerical and experimental demonstrators are presented to validate the technique proposed. This later is particularly useful for the improvement of the analogue and digital signal integrity degraded by electromagnetic interferences.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ravelo, B. (2013). Neutralization of LC- and RC-Disturbances with Left-Handed and NGD Effects. Advanced Electromagnetics, 2(1), 73-84. https://doi.org/10.7716/aem.v2i1.90
Section
Research Articles

References


  1. Sommerfeld, "Ein Einwand gegen die Relativtheorie der Elektrodynamik und seine Beseitigung", Physik. Z. 8, pp. 841-842, 1907.

  2. Sommerfeld, "Uber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in Dispergierenden Medien", Ann. Physik. 44, pp. 177-201, 1914.

  3. L. Brillouin, Wave Propagation in Periodic Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1946.

  4. Sommerfeld, Vorlesungen über Theoretische Physik, Band IV, Optik, Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1950.

  5. Sommerfeld, Lectures on Theoretical Physics, Optics. Academic Press Inc. US, 1954.

  6. L. Brillouin, Wave propagation and group velocity, Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-83 & 113-137, 1960.

  7. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McGumber, "Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 1, pp. 305-313, 1970.
    View Article

  8. S. Chu. and S. Wong, "Linear Pulse Propagation in an Absorbing Medium", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 48, pp. 738-741, 1982.
    View Article

  9. Ségard and B. Macke, "Observation of negative velocity pulse propagation", Phys. Lett. 109, pp. 213-216, 1985.
    View Article

  10. Macke and B. Segard, "Propagation of light-pulses at a negative group-velocity", Eur. Phys. J. D 23, pp. 125-141, 2003.
    View Article

  11. A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, "Dispersionless, highly superluminal propagation in a medium with a gain doublet", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 49, pp. 2071–2075, 1994.
    View Article

  12. A. Dogariu, A. Kuzmich and L. J. Wang, "Transparent anomalous dispersion and superluminal light-pulse propagation at a negative group velocity", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 63, pp. 053806.1-053806.12, 2001.

  13. L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich and A. Dogariu, "Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation", Nature 406, pp. 277 – 279, 2000.
    View Article

  14. K. T. McDonald, "Negative group velocity", Amer. J. Phys., Vol. 69, No. 5, pp. 607–614, May 2001.
    View Article

  15. O. F. Siddiqui, M. Mojahedi and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Periodically loaded transmission line with effective negative refractive index and negative Group velocity", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 2619-2625, Oct. 2003.
    View Article

  16. J. F. Woodley and M. Mojahedi, "Negative group velocity and group delay in left-handed media", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 70, pp. 046603.1-046603.6, 2004.

  17. R. Y. Chiao, "Superluminal (but causal) propagation of wave packets in transparent media with inverted atomic populations", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 48, pp. R34-R37, 1993.
    View Article

  18. R. Y. Chiao, Population inversion and superluminality, in amazing light, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 91-108, 1996.
    View Article

  19. R. Y. Chiao, E. L. Bolda, J. Bowie, J. Boyce and M. W. Mitchell, "Superluminality and amplifiers", Prog. Crystal Growth Charact. Mat. 33, pp. 319-325, 1996.
    View Article

  20. M. W. Mitchell and R.Y. Chiao, "Causality and negative group delays in a simple bandpass amplifier", Am. J. Phys., Vol. 66, pp. 14-19, 1998.
    View Article

  21. M. W. Mitchell and R.Y. Chiao, "Negative group delay and 'Fronts' in a causal systems: An experiment with very low frequency bandpass amplifiers", Phys. Lett. A, Vol. 230, pp. 133-138, Jun. 1997.
    View Article

  22. D. Solli, R. Y. Chiao and J. M. Hickmannn, "Superluminal effects and negative group delays in electronics, and their applications", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 66, pp. 056601.1-056601.4, 2002.

  23. M. Kitano, T. Nakanishi and K. Sugiyama, "Negative group delay and superluminal propagation: An electronic circuit approach", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 43-51, Feb. 2003.
    View Article

  24. T. Nakanishi, K. Sugiyama and M. Kitano, "Demonstration of negative group delays in a simple electronic circuit", Am. J. Phys., Vol. 70, No. 11, pp. 1117-1121, 2002.
    View Article

  25. J. N. Munday and R. H. Henderson, "Superluminal time advance of a complex audio signal", Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 85, pp. 503-504, Jul. 2004.
    View Article

  26. S. J. Erickson, M. Khaja and M. Mojahedi, "Time- and frequency-domain measurements for an active negative group delay circuit", in Proc of IEEE Ant. Prop. Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 3A, pp. 790-793, 2005.

  27. V. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and µ", Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 509-514, 1968.
    View Article

  28. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction make a perfect lens", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, pp. 3966-3969, Oct. 2000.
    View Article

  29. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction", Science, Vol. 292, No. 5514, pp. 77-79, Apr. 2001.
    View Article

  30. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction", Contemporary Physics, Vol. 45, pp. 191-202, 3 May-June 2004.

  31. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index", Science, Vol. 305, pp. 788-792, 6 Aug. 2004.
    View Article

  32. R. W. Ziolkowski and E. Hayman, "Wave propagation in media having negative permittivity and permeability", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 64, pp. 056625.1-056625.15, 2001.

  33. R. W. Ziolkowski and A. D. Kipple, "Causality and double-negative metamaterials", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 68, Part 2, pp. 026615, Aug. 2003.
    View Article

  34. A. Dogariu, A. Kuzmich and L. J. Wang, "Transparent anomalous dispersion and superluminal light-pulse propagation at a negative group velocity," Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 63, pp. 053806.1-053806.12, 2001.

  35. R. W. Boyd and D. J. Gauthier, 'Slow' and 'Fast' light, Ch. 6 in Progress in Optics 43, E. Wolf, Ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 497-530, 2002.

  36. J. Gauthier and R. W. Boyd, "Fast light, slow light and optical precursors: What does it all mean", Photonics Spectra, pp. 82-90, Jan. 2007.

  37. A. Kuzmich, A. Dogariu, L. J. Wang, P. W. Milonni and R. Y. Chiao, "Signal velocity, causality and quantum noise in superluminal light pulse propagation", Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, pp. 3925-3929, 2001.
    View Article

  38. S. Lucyszyn, I. D. Robertson and A. H. Aghvami, "Negative group delay synthesiser", Electronic Letters, Vol. 29, pp. 798-800, 1993.
    View Article

  39. C. D. Broomfield and J. K. A. Everard, "Broadband negative group delay networks for compensation of oscillators using feedforward amplifiers", Electronic Letters, Vol. 20, pp. 1710-1711, Sep. 2000.

  40. N. S. Bukhman, and S. V. Bukhman, "On the negative delay time of a narrow-band signal as it passes through the resonant filter of absorption", Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 66-76, 2004.
    View Article

  41. B. Ravelo, "Demonstration of negative signal delay with short-duration transient pulse", Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (EPJAP), Vol. 55 (10103), pp. 1-8, 2011.

  42. B. Ravelo and S. De Blasi, "An FET-based microwave active circuit with dual-band negative group delay", Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 355-366, Dec. 2011.
    View Article

  43. B. Ravelo, "Investigation on microwave negative group delay circuit", Electromagnetics, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 537-549, Nov. 2011.
    View Article

  44. B. Ravelo, "Baseband NGD circuit with RF amplifier", Electronic Letters, Vol. 47, No. 13, pp. 752-754, June 2011.
    View Article

  45. M. Kandic and G. E. Bridges, "Asymptotic limits of negative group delay in active resonator-based distributed circuits", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 1727-1735, Aug. 2011.
    View Article

  46. M. Kandic and G. E. Bridges, "Transient-imposed limitations of negative group delay circuits", 14th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics & the American Electromagnetics Conference (ANTEM-AMEREM), 2010, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 1-4, 5-8 July 2010.

  47. C. D. Broomfield and J. K. A. Everard, "Broadband negative group delay networks for compensation of oscillators using feedforward amplifiers", Electronic Letters, Vol. 20, pp. 1710-1711, Sep. 2000.

  48. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Broadband balun using active negative group delay circuit", in Proc. of the 37th European Microwave Conference, Munich, Germany, pp. 466-469, Oct. 2007.

  49. S. Keser and M. Mojahedi, "Broadband negative group delay microstrip phase shifter design", in Proc. of IEEE Ant. Prop. Soc. Int. Symp. 2009 (APSURSI'09), Charleston, SC, pp. 1-4, 1-5 June 2009.

  50. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Synthesis of frequency-independent phase shifters using negative group delay active circuit", Int. J. RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering (RFMiCAE), Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 17-24, Jan. 2011.
    View Article

  51. B. Ravelo, M. Le Roy and A. Pérennec, "Frequency-independent active phase shifters for UWB applications", Proc. of the 40th European Microwave Conference, Paris, France, pp. 1774-1777, 28-30 Sep. 2010.

  52. B. Ravelo, "Investigation on the microwave pulse signal compression with NGD active circuit", PIER C Journal, Vol. 20, pp. 155-171, 2011.

  53. H. Noto, K. Yamauchi, M. Nakayama, and Y. Isota, "Negative group delay circuit for feed-forward amplifier", IEEE Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 1103-1106, June 2007.

  54. H. Choi, Y. Jeong, C. D. Kim, and J. S. Kenney, "Bandwidth enhancement of an analog feedback amplifier by employing a negative group delay circuit", PIER, Vol. 105, pp. 253-272, 2010.
    View Article

  55. K.-P. Ahn, R. Ishikawa, and K. Honjo, "Group delay equalized UWB InGaP/GaAs HBT MMIC amplifier using negative group delay circuits", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 2139- 2147, Sep. 2009.
    View Article

  56. S. K. Podilchak, B. M. Frank, A. P. Freundorfer, and Y. M. M. Antar, "High speed metamaterial-inspired negative group delay circuits in CMOS for delay equalization", in Proc. of 2nd Microsystems and Nanoelectronics Research Conference 2009 (MNRC 2009), Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 9-12, 13-14 Oct. 2009.

  57. B. Ravelo and J. Ben Hadj Slama, "Equalization of digital/mixed-signal disturbances with an negative group delay circuit", Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON 2012), Yasmine Hammamet, Tunisia, 25-28 Mar. 2012, pp. 844-847.
    View Article

  58. C.J. Akl, "Reducing Interconnect Delay Uncertainty via Hybrid Polarity Repeater Insertion", IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 1230-1239, Sept. 2008.

  59. S.-C. Wong, G.-Y. Lee and D.-J. Ma, "Modeling of interconnect capacitance, delay, and crosstalk in VLSI", IEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 108-111, Feb 2000.
    View Article

  60. B. Ravelo, "Delay modeling of high-speed distributed interconnect for the signal integrity prediction", Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (EPJAP), Vol. 57, No. 3 (31002), pp. 1-8, Mar. 2012.

  61. T. Sakurai, "Closed-form expressions for interconnection delay, coupling, and crosstalk in VLSIs", IEEE Transactions on Electronic Devices, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 118-124, Jan. 1993.
    View Article

  62. S. S. Sapatnekar, and I. A. Ames, "RC Interconnect Optimization under the Elmore Delay Model", Proceedings of the 31st IEEE Conference on Design Automation, 1994, San Diego, CA, 6-10 June 1994, pp. 387-391.

  63. S.-S. Myoung, B.-S. Kwon, Y.-H. Kim and J.-G. Yook, "Effect of group delay in RF BPF on impulse radio systems", IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 90, No. 12, pp. 3514-3522, 2007.
    View Article

  64. W. C. Elmore, "The transient response of damped linear networks", J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 19, pp. 55-63, Jan. 1948.
    View Article

  65. C.-Y. Liu, Q.-X. Chu and J.-Q. Huang, "A planar D-CRLH and its application to bandstop filter and leaky-wave antenna", PIER Letters, Vol. 19, pp. 93-102, 2010.

  66. O. Siddiqui, A. S. Mohra, and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Quad-band power divider based on left-handed transmission lines", Electronic Letters, Vol. 46, No. 21, pp. 1441-1442, Oct. 2010.
    View Article

  67. C. Caloz, A. Sanada, and T. Itoh, "A novel composite right/left-handed coupled-line directional coupler with arbitrary coupling level and broad bandwidth", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 52, pp. 980-992, Mar. 2004.
    View Article

  68. R. Islam and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Phase-agile branch-line couplers using metamaterial lines", IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, Jul. 2004, 14, Vol. 7, pp. 340-342.

  69. G. V. Eleftheriades, O. Siddiqui and A. K. Iyer, "Transmission line for negative refractive index media and associated implementations without excess resonators", IEEE Microwave Wireless Component Letters, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 51-53, Feb. 2003.
    View Article

  70. A. Lai, C. Caloz and T. Itoh, "Composite right/left-handed transmission line metamaterials", IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 5, pp. 34-50, Sep. 2004.
    View Article

  71. T. Itoh, "Invited paper: Prospects for metamaterials", Electronic Letters, Vol. 40, No. 16, pp. 972-973, Aug. 2004.
    View Article

  72. A. Levy, R. Shavit and L. Habib, "Optimisation of a microstrip left-handed transmission line using circuit modelling", IET Microwaves, Antennas & Propagation, Vol. 4, No. 12, pp. 2133-2143, 2010.
    View Article

  73. S.-G. Mao, M.-S. Wu, Y.-Z. Chueh and C. C. Hsiung, "Modeling of symmetric composite right/left-handed coplanar waveguides with applications to compact bandpass filters", IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 11, pp. 3460-3466, Nov. 2005.
    View Article

  74. W.-R. Zhu, and X.-P. Zhao, "Numerical study of low-loss cross left-handed metamaterials at visible frequency", Chinese Phys. Lett., 2009, 26 074212.
    View Article

  75. Fu Jia-Hui, Wu Qun, Yang Guo-Hui, Meng Fan-Yi and Lee Jong-Chul, "Effective electromagnetic parameters of left-handed coplanar waveguide transmission lines", J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 109, No. 7 (07A333), pp. 1-3, 2011.

  76. J. Vlach, J. A. Barby, A. Vannelli, T. Talkhan, and C. J. Shi, "Group delay as an estimate of delay in logic", IEEE Transactions on Computed-Aided Design, Vol. 10, No. 7, pp. 949-953, Jul. 1991.
    View Article

  77. R. M. Corless, G. H. Gonnet, D. E. G. Hare, D. J. Jeffrey and D. E. Knuth, "On the Lambert W Function", Advances in Computational Mathematics, Vol. 5, pp. 329-359, 1996.
    View Article

  78. D. J. Jeffrey, D. E. G. Hare and R. M. Corless, "Unwinding the branches of the Lambert W function", Math. Scientist, Vol. 21, pp. 1-7, 1996.