Synthesis of RF Circuits with Negative Time Delay by Using LNA

Main Article Content

B. Ravelo

Abstract

A demonstration of the negative time-delay by using active circuit topologies with negative group delay (NGD) is described in this paper. This negative time delay is realized with two different topologies operating in base band and modulated frequencies. The first NGD topology is composed of an RL-network in feedback with an RF/microwave amplifier. Knowing the characteristics of the amplifier, a synthesis method of this circuit in function of the desired NGD values and the expected time advance is established. The feasibility of this extraordinary physical effect is illustrated with frequency- and time-domain analyses. It is shown in this paper that by considering an arbitrary waveform signal, output in advance of about 7 ns is observed compared to the corresponding input. It is stated that such an effect is not in contradiction with the causality. The other NGD topology is comprised of a microwave amplifier associated with an RLC-series resonant. The theoretical approach illustrating the functioning of this NGD circuit is established by considering the amplifier S-parameters. Then, synthesis relations enabling to choose the NGD device parameters according to the desired NGD and gain values are also established. To demonstrate the relevance of the theoretic concept, a microwave device exhibiting NGD function of about -1.5 ns at around 1.19 GHz was designed and analyzed. The NGD device investigated in this paper presents advantages on its faculty to exhibit positive transmission gain, the implementation of the bias network and matching in the considered NGD frequency band.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Ravelo, B. (2013). Synthesis of RF Circuits with Negative Time Delay by Using LNA. Advanced Electromagnetics, 2(1), 44-54. https://doi.org/10.7716/aem.v2i1.89
Section
Research Articles

References


  1. S. Lucyszyn, I. D. Robertson and A. H. Aghvami, "Negative group delay synthesiser", Electronic Letters, Vol. 29, pp. 798-800, 1993.
    View Article

  2. S. Lucyszyn, "Lies, damn lies and measurements," in Proc. of 16th APMC E4, New Delhi, India, Dec. 2004.

  3. C. D. Broomfield and J. K. A. Everard, "Broadband negative group delay networks for compensation of oscillators using feedforward amplifiers", Electronics Letters, Vol. 20, 1710-1711, Sep. 2000.

  4. G. V. Eleftheriades, O. Siddiqui and A. K. Iyer, "Transmission line for negative index media and associated implementations without excess resonators," IEEE MWC Lett., Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 51-53, Feb. 2003.

  5. O. F. Siddiqui, M. Mojahedi, and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Periodically loaded transmission line with effective negative refractive index and negative group velocity," IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 2619-2625, Oct. 2003.
    View Article

  6. N. S. Bukhman and S. V. Bukhman, "On the negative delay time of a narrow-band signal as it passes through the resonant filter of absorption," Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics, Vol. 47, No. 1, pp. 66-76, 2004.
    View Article

  7. O. F. Siddiqui, M. Mojahedi and G. V. Eleftheriades, "Periodically Loaded Transmission Line With Effective Negative Refractive Index and Negative Group Velocity", IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, pp. 2619-2625, Oct. 2003.
    View Article

  8. J. F. Woodley and M. Mojahedi, "Negative Group Velocity and Group Delay in Left-Handed Media", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 70, pp. 046603.1-046603.6, 2004.

  9. R. Y. Chiao, E. L. Bolda, J. Bowie, J. Boyce and M. W. Mitchell, "Superluminality and Amplifiers," Prog. Crystal Growth Charact. Mat. 33, pp. 319-325, 1996.
    View Article

  10. D. Solli, and R. Y. Chiao, "Superluminal effects and negative delays in electronics, and their applications," Phys. Rev. E, No. 5, Nov. 2002.

  11. M. Kitano, T. Nakanishi and K. Sugiyama, "Negative group delay and superluminal propagation: An electronic circuit approach," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 43-51, 2003.
    View Article

  12. J. N. Munday and R. H. Henderson, "Superluminal time advance of a complex audio signal", Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 85, pp. 503-504, Jul. 2004.
    View Article

  13. S. J. Erickson, M. Khaja and M. Mojahedi, "Time- and frequency-domain measurements for an active negative group delay circuit", in Proc of IEEE Ant. Prop. Soc. Int. Symp., Vol. 3A, pp. 790-793, 2005.

  14. B. Ravelo, "Demonstration of negative signal delay with short-duration transient pulse", Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (EPJAP), Vol. 55, 10103-pp. 1-8, 2011.

  15. B. Ravelo and S. De Blasi, "An FET-based microwave active circuit with dual-band negative group delay", Journal of Microwaves, Optoelectronics and Electromagnetic Applications (JMOe), Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 355-366, Dec. 2011.
    View Article

  16. B. Ravelo, "Investigation on microwave negative group delay circuit", Electromagnetics, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 537-549, Nov. 2011.
    View Article

  17. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec, M. Le Roy and Y. Boucher, "Active microwave circuit with negative group delay," IEEE MWC Lett., Vol. 17, No. 12, pp. 861-863, Dec. 2007.

  18. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Synthesis of broadband negative group delay active circuits," IEEE MTT-Symposium IMS 2007, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 2177-2180, 3-8 June 2007.

  19. M.W. Mitchell and R.Y. Chiao, "Causality and negative group delays in a simple bandpass amplifier", Am. J. Phys. 66, 14-19, 1998.
    View Article

  20. M.W. Mitchell and R.Y. Chiao, "Negative group delay and 'Fronts' in a causal systems: An experiment with very low frequency bandpass amplifiers", Phys. Lett., Vol. A230, 133-138, June 1997.

  21. M. Kandic and G. E. Bridges, "Asymptotic Limits of Negative Group Delay in Active Resonator-Based Distributed Circuits", IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, Vol. 58, No. 8, pp. 1727 – 1735, Aug. 2011.
    View Article

  22. M. Kandic and G. E. Bridges, "Transient-Imposed Limitations of Negative Group Delay Circuits", in Proc. of 14th International Symposium on Antenna Technology and Applied Electromagnetics & the American Electromagnetics Conference (ANTEM-AMEREM), 2010, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp. 1-4, 5-8 July 2010.

  23. A. Dogariu, A. Kuzmich and L. J. Wang, "Transparent anomalous dispersion and superluminal light-pulse propagation at a negative group velocity", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 63, pp. 053806.1-053806.12, 2001.

  24. L. Brillouin and A. Sommerfeld, Wave propagation and group velocity, Academic Press, New York, 113-137, 1960.

  25. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McGumber, "Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 1, pp. 305-313, 1970.
    View Article

  26. S. Chu. and S. Wong, "Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 48, pp. 738-741, 1982.
    View Article

  27. Ségard and B. Macke, "Observation of negative velocity pulse propagation", Phys. Lett. 109, pp. 213-216, 1985.
    View Article

  28. B. Ravelo, M. Le Roy and A. Perennec, "Application of negative group delay active circuits to the design of broadband and constant phase shifters", Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 50, No. 12, pp. 3077-3080, Dec. 2008.
    View Article

  29. S. Keser and M. Mojahedi, "Broadband negative group delay microstrip phase shifter design", in Proc. of IEEE Ant. Prop. Soc. Int. Symp. 2009 (APSURSI'09), Charleston, SC, pp. 1-4, 1-5 June 2009.

  30. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Synthesis of frequency independent phase shifter using negative group delay active circuit," Int. J. RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering (RFMiCAE), Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 17-24, Jan. 2011.
    View Article

  31. B. Ravelo, M. Le Roy and A. Pérennec, "Frequency-independent active phase shifters for UWB applications", Proc. of the 40th European Microwave Conference, Paris, France, pp. 1774-1777, 28-30 Sep. 2010.

  32. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Broadband balun using active negative group delay circuit", in Proc. of 37th European Microwave Conference, Munich, Germany, pp. 466-469, Oct. 2007.

  33. H. Noto, K. Yamauchi, M. Nakayama, and Y. Isota, "Negative group delay circuit for feed-forward amplifier", IEEE Int. Microw. Symp. Dig., Honolulu, Hawaii, pp. 1103-1106, Jun. 2007.

  34. H. Choi, Y. Jeong, C. D. Kim, and J. S. Kenney, "Bandwidth enhancement of an analog feedback amplifier by employing a negative group delay circuit", Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 105, 253-272, 2010.
    View Article

  35. B. Ravelo, "Investigation on the microwave pulse signal compression with NGD active circuit", PIER C Journal, Vol. 20, pp. 155-171, 2011.

  36. B. Ravelo, Étude des circuits analogiques-numériques NGD et leurs applications: Théorie fondamentale et expérimentations des circuits analogiques et numériques à temps négatif et leurs applications, (in French) Chapters 8, Éditions Universitaires Européennes (EUE), Ed. by M. Fabre, 432 Pages, 13 Jan. 2012.

  37. B. Ravelo and J. Ben Hadj Slama, "Equalization of digital/mixed-signal disturbances with an negative group delay circuit", (Accepted for communication) Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON 2012), 25-28 March 2012, Medine Yasmine Hammamet, Tunisia.

  38. T. Eudes and B. Ravelo, "Cancellation of delays in the high-rate interconnects with UWB NGD active cells", Applied Physics Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov. 2011, pp. 81-88.
    View Article

  39. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "Experimental validation of the RC-interconnect effect equalization with negative group delay active circuit in planar hybrid technology", in Proc. of 13th IEEE Workshop on Signal Propagation Interconnects (SPI), Strasbourg, France, May 2009.

  40. B. Ravelo, A. Perennec and M. Le Roy, "New technique of inter-chip interconnect effects equalization with negative group delay active circuits", VLSI, Chap. 20, Ed. by Z. Wang, INTECH book, 409-434, Feb. 2010.

  41. B. Ravelo, "Baseband NGD circuit with RF amplifier", Electronic Letters, Vol. 47, No. 13, June 2011.
    View Article

  42. B. Ravelo, "Delay modelling of high-speed distributed interconnect for the signal integrity prediction", To be published in Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (EPJAP), 2012, DOI: 10.1051/epjap/20121103742012.

  43. B. Ravelo, "Lumped RC-tree network propagation-delay modeling", To be published in Int. J. Communication Engineering Applications (IJCEA), 2012.

  44. R. Mumford, "European carriers face capacity crunch challenges", Int. Report, Microwave J., 169-170, Apr. 2010.

  45. A. Lazaro, D. Girbau and R. Villarino, "Effects of interferences in UHF RFID systems", Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 98, 425-443, 2009.
    View Article

  46. P. White, "Group delay explanations and applications", Applied Radio Labs, pp. 1-6, 1999.

  47. Z. Abate, WiMAX RF systems engineering, Mobile communication series, Artech House 2009, Norwood, MA, USA.

  48. S.-S. Myoung, B.-S. Kwon, Y.-H. Kim and J.-G. Yook, "Effect of group delay in RF BPF on impulse radio systems", IEICE Tran. Communications, Vol. 90, No. 12, pp. 3514-3522, 2007.
    View Article