Main Article Content
In this paper, a novel wideband conformal fractal antenna is proposed for GPS application. The concepts of fractal and partial ground are used in conformal antenna design for miniaturization and bandwidth enhancement. It comprises of Minkowski fractal patch on a substrate of Rogers RT/duroid 5880 with permittivity 2.2 and thickness of 0.787mm with microstrip inset feed. The proposed conformal antenna has a patch dimension about 0.39λmm×0.39λmm, and partial ground plane size is 29mm×90mm.The proposed antenna is simulated, fabricated and measured for both planar and conformal geometry, with good agreement between measurements and simulations. The size of the fractal patch is reduced approximately by 32% as compared with conventional patch. It is observed that the conformal antenna exhibits a fractional bandwidth(for the definition of -10dB) of 43.72% operating from 1.09 to 1.7GHz, which is useful for L1(1.56-1.58GHz), L2(1.21-1.23GHz), L3(1.37-1.39GHz), L4(1.36-1.38GHz), and L5(1.16-1.18 GHz) in GPS and Galileo frequencies: E=1589.742MHz(4MHzbandwidth), E2=1561. 098MHz(4MHzbandwidth), E5a=1176.45MHz(=L5),E5b= 1207.14MHz, and E6=1278.75MHz(40MHz bandwidth). The radiation pattern exhibits an omnidirectional pattern, and gain of proposed antenna is 2.3dBi to 3.5dBi within operating frequency range.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Anon., Aeronautical satellites, Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology 59 (3),2–4,1987.
Munson Re, Conformal microstrip antennas, Microw. J. 31 (3), 1988.
L.Josefsson, P.Persson, Conformal Array Antenna Theory and Design, IEEE Press, 2006.
He Zhu; Xianling Liang; Sheng Ye; Ronghong Jin;Junping Geng, A Cylindrically Conformal Array With Enhanced Axial Radiation, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters,1653-1656, 2016.
Hua-Ming Chen,Yi-Fang Lin, Chien-Hung Chen, Chien-Yuan Pan, And You-Shiang Cai,"Miniature Folded Patch GPS Antenna for Vehicle Communication Devices, IEEE Transactions On Antennas And Propagation, Vol.63, NO.5, 2015.
M. M. Bilgic And K. Yegin," Modified Annular Ring Antenna for GPS and SDARS Automotive Applications, IEEE Antennas And Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol.15, 2016.
Encheng Wang, Qiuping Liu," GPS Patch Antenna Loaded with Fractal EBG Structure Using Organic Magnetic Substrate, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 58, 23–28, 2016.
Zhang Xiangjun, Ma Xiaoping, Guan Xueyuan, "Design of Cylindrical Conformal Microstrip GPS Antenna Arrays, International Conference on Microwave Technology and Computational Electromagnetics, Beijing,p.105-108, 2009.
Dholakiya, Hitesh L., and Dhaval A. Pujara. "Improving the bandwidth of a microstrip antenna with a circular‐shaped fractal slot." Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 55.4 (2013): 786-789.
Karmakar, Anirban, et al. "Complementary stacked patch antenna with fractal shape defect for wideband characteristics." Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 56.4 (2014): 944-947.
Mahatthanajatuphat, Chatree, et al. "A rhombic patch monopole antenna with modified Minkowski fractal geometry for UMTS, WLAN, and mobile WiMAX application." Progress In Electromagnetics Research 89 (2009): 57-74.
Ataeiseresht, R., C. H. Ghobadi, and J. Nourinia. "A novel analysis of Minkowski fractal microstrip patch antenna." Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications 20.8 (2006): 1115-1127.
Manafi, Sara, and Hai Deng. "Design of a small modified Minkowski fractal antenna for passive deep brain stimulation implants." International Journal of Antennas and Propagation 2014 (2014).