Main Article Content
The Maxwell field equations (MFEs), as ecumenical model of electromagnetic phenomena, are scale-invariant under Lorentz Transformation (LT). To apply LT, some considerations are required which are not all practically available or technologically attainable; hence, the scale-invariant feature may not be reached effectively. Paving the way to focus on this issue, the effect of substrate thickness scaling as an uncontrollable parameter, is explored on eight identical patch antennas with different substrate thicknesses. In this way, the resonant frequency and complex value of return loss are measured. The effect of manufacturing tolerances of dielectric thickness on resonant frequency deviation and return loss magnitude are carefully studied, too. Also the unwanted distortive effect of selected electrical connection, say as a female SMA connector, is investigated at higher frequencies. The obtained results are comparatively analyzed which confirm the practical bottlenecks in meeting the antenna parameters scaling.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
J. K. Goyal, K. P. Gupta, Theory of Relativity, Meerut, Delhi, India, Krishna Prakashan Media, 1975, pp 1-16.
P. B. Siegel, Maxwell's Equations under Galilean Transformations, San Diego State University, 1977.
Ch. S. Pyo, Lorentz Transform and Maxwell Equation, Physical Mathematics I Conference, KAIST University, South Korea, 2011.
H. Lorentz, Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light, Proceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol. 6: 809–831, 1904. Available at: www.phys.lsu.edu/mog/100/lorentz04.pdf
G. Sinclair, "Theory of Models of Electromagnetic Systems", Proceeding of the I.R.E, Volume: 36 Issue: 11, pp. 1364-1371, 1948
N. Hamdan, On the invariance of Maxwell's field equations under Lorentz transformations, Galilean Electrodynamics, Vancouver, Canada, vol. 17, pp.115-117, 2006.
E. F. Knott, Radar cross section measurements, Springer Science and Business Media, New York, USA, 2012, Ch. 12, pp. 483-510.
M. Wautelet, Scaling laws in the macro-, micro- and Nano-worlds, European Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics Publishing, vol. 22, pp. 601-611, 2001.
A. L. Whitson, Electromagnetic dimensional scale modeling, Stanford research institute, Interaction notes, Note 200, Sep. 1974.
B. S. Mitchell, An introduction to materials engineering and science for chemical and materials engineers, 1st ed., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, John Wiley and Sons, 2004, Ch. 6, pp 538-678.
V. Timoshevskii, Y. Ke, H. Guo and D. Gall, The influence of surface roughness on electrical conductance of thin Cu films: An ab initio study, American Institute of Physics, API Publishing, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 103, Issue 11, 2008,
J. Cech, H. Pranov, G. Kofod, M. Matschuk, S Murthy and R. J. Taboryski, Surface roughness reduction using spray-coated hydrogen silsesquioxane reflow, Applied Surface Science, vol. 280, pp. 424-43, 2013.
V. Alfieri, P. Argenio F. Caiazzo and V. Sergi, Reduction of Surface Roughness by Means of Laser Processing over Additive Manufacturing Metal Parts, Materials, vol.10, Issue 1, pp.30, 2016. Available at: doi:10.3390/ma10010030
A. Esmaeilkhah, Ch. Ghobadi & J. Nourinia, Upper Limit of Truncation Errors of Expressing the Real Numbers, Modeling & the Exact Solution, in 1st National Conference on Modeling Mathematics and Statistics in Applied Studies, Chalous, Iran, Apr 27, 2017.