Main Article Content
The basic mechanisms that govern the generation of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) following a nuclear detonation in the atmosphere, including heights of burst (HOB) relevant to surface bursts (0 km), near surface bursts (0-2 km), air bursts (2-20 km) and high-altitude bursts (> 20 km), are reviewed. Previous computational codes developed to treat the source region and predict the EMP are discussed. A new 2-D hydrodynamic code (HYDROFLASH) that solves the fluid equations for electron and ion transport in the atmosphere and the coupled Maxwell equations using algorithms extracted from the Conservation Law (CLAW) package for solving multi-dimensional hyperbolic equations with finite volume techniques has been formulated. Simulations include the ground, atmospheric gradient, and an azimuthal applied magnetic field as a first approximation to the geomagnetic field. HYDROFLASH takes advantage of multiprocessor systems by using domain decomposition together with the Message Passing Interface (MPI) protocol for parallel processing. A detailed description of the model is presented along with computational results for a generic 10 kiloton (kT) burst detonated at 0 and 10 km altitude.
- W. J. Karzas and R. Latter, "The Electromagnetic Signal due to the Interaction of Nuclear Explosions with the Earth's Magnetic Field," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 67, No. 12, p. 4635, 1962.
- W. J. Karzas and R. Latter, "Electromagnetic Radiation from a Nuclear Explosion in Space," Phys. Rev., vol. 126, No. 6, p. 1919, 1962.
- W.J. Karzas and R. Latter, "Electromagnetic Signals from High-Altitude Nuclear Explosions," RM-3670-AFT, Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California, 1963.
- W.J. Karzas and R. Latter, "Detection of the Electromagnetic Radiation from Nuclear Explosions in Space," Phys. Rev., vol. 137, p. B1369, 1965.
- C.L. Longmire, "Effect of Compton Electrons on Earth's Magnetic Field," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Memo, Los Alamos, NM, Nov. 1961.
- C.L. Longmire, "Close-in E.M. Effects Lectures X and IX," in LAMS-3073, Los Alamos, NM: Los Alamos Scientific Lab, 1964.
- C.L. Longmire, "Electromagnetic Effects of Nuclear Explosions," in CRC Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, vol. II, ch. 6, p. 135, 1983.
- C.L. Longmire, "The Early-Time EMP from High-Altitude Nuclear Explosions," Mission Research Corporation report, MRC-R-809, December 1983.
- H.J. Longley and C.L. Longmire, "Development of the CHAP EMP code," DNA report 3150T, November 1973.
- H.J. Longley and C.L. Longmire, "Development and Testing of LEMP 1," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, LA-4346, December 1969.
- J.H. Erkkila, "Calculations of the EMP from High Altitude Nuclear Detonations," Air Force Weapons Lab, EMP TN 26, April 1967.
- S.J. Dalich and K.D. Granzow, "Electromagnetic Pulse Environment Studies," Air Force Weapons Lab report, AFWL-TR_73_286, vol. 1, December 1973.
- R. L. Knight, “Numerical Solutions of Maxwell’s Equations with Azimuthal Symmetry in Prolate Spheroidal Coordinates,” Air Force Weapons Laboratory, EMP TN 62, July 1969.
- W.A. Radasky and R.L. Knight, "HAPS A Two Dimensional High Altitude EMP Environment Code," Air Force Weapons Laboratory, EMP TN 125, November 1971.
- J.S. Malik, E.D. Cashwell, and R.G. Schrandt, "The Time Dependence of the Compton Current and Energy Deposition from Scattered Gamma Rays," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Report, LA-7386-MS, 1978.
- C.L. Longmire and H.J. Longley, "Improvements in the Treatment of Compton Current and Air Conductivity in EMP," Defense Nuclear Agency Report, DNA 3192T, 1973.
- J.F. Morgan, and G.R. Knutson, "The Treatment of Electron Scattering and Approximate Methods Used for Specifying High-Altitude EMP Sources," Air Force Weapons Laboratory Theoretical Notes, Note 204, 1973.
- C.L. Longmire and J. Koppel, "Formative Time Lag of Secondary Ionization," Mission Research Corporation Report, MRC-R-88, 1974.
- J.E. Brau, G.H. Canavan, L.A. Wittwer, A.E. Greene, "Propagated EMP from Tangent and Buried Bursts," Air Force Weapons Laboratory Theoretical Notes, Note 197, 1973.
- M.K. Grover and F.R. Gilmore, "A Review of Data for Electron Mobility, Energy, and Attachment Relevant to EMP Air Chemistry," Defense Nuclear Agency Report, DNA 5457T, 1980.
- E. Savage, J. Gilbert, and W. Radasky, "The Early-Time (E1) High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) and its Impact on the U.S. Power Grid," MetaTech Report, Meta-R-320, January 2010.
- C. Baum, "From the Electromagnetic Pulse to High-Power Electromagnetics," Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 80, No. 6, 1992.
- A. Ray, G. Kondayya, and S.V.G. Menon, "Developing a Finite Difference Time Domain Parallel Code for Nuclear Electromagnetic Field Simulation," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 54, No. 4, 2006.
- W.T. Wyatt Jr., "A Near Surface Burst EMP Driver Package for Prompt Gamma-Induced Sources," Harry Diamond Labs Report, HDL-TR-1931, 1980.
- Clawpack, Clawpack software, Authors: Randall J. LeVeque, Marsha Berger, Jan Olav Langseth, David George, David Ketcheson, Kyle Mandli, Aron Ahmadia; Contributors: Amal Alghamdi, Peter Blossey, Donna Calhoun, Ondřej Čertík, Grady Lemoine, Sorin Mitran., Matteo Parsani, and Andy Terrel, http://www.clawpack.org,Version 4.3, 2014.
- D.S. Bale, R.J. LeVeque, S. Mitran, and J.A. Rossmanith, "A Wave-propagation Mmethod for Cconservation Laws with Spatially Varying Flux Functions," SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 24, pp. 955-978, 2002.
- R.J. LeVeque, "Finite Volume Methods for Hyperbolic Problems," Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002.
- R.A. Roussel-Dupré, J.J. Colman, E.M.D. Symbalisty, D. Sentman, V.P. Pasko, "Physical Processes Related to Discharges in Planetary Atmospheres," Spa. Sci. Rev., vol. 137, No. 1-4, pp. 51-82, 2008.
- J.J. Colman, R.A. Roussel-Dupré, and L. Triplett, "Temporally Self-Similar Electron Distribution Functions in Atmospheric Breakdown: the Thermal Runaway Regime," J. Geophys. Res., 2009.
- X.M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C.Y. Wang, and J.M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond Ultraviolet Laser Pulse Induced Lightning Discharges in Gases," IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, vol. 31, No. 3, 599-612, 1995.
- D.K. Davies, "Measurements of Swarm Parameters in Dry Air," Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report, AFWL-TR-83-55, 1983.
- D.K. Davies and P.J. Chantry, "Air Chemistry Measurements II," Air Force Weapons Laboratory Report, AFWL-TR-84-130, 1985.
- I.A. Kossyi, A. Yu Kostinsky, A.A. Matveyev, and V.P. Silakov, "Kinetic Scheme of the Non-Equilibrium Discharge in Nitrogen-Oxygen Mixtures," Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., vol. 1, 207-220, 1992.
- K. Sankaran, "Accurate Domain Truncation Techniques for Time-Domain Conformal Methods," PhD Dissertation submitted to ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2007.
- E.M.D. Symbalisty, R.A. Roussel-Dupré, and V.A. Yukhimuk, "Finite Volume Solution of the Relativistic Boltzmann Equation for Electron Avalanche Studies," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 26 (5), pp. 1575-1582, 1998.
- J.J. Colman, and R.A. Roussel-Dupré, "A Full Kinetic Treatment of Gamma-Ray Transport Applied to TGF Observations from RHESSI," Los Alamos National Laboratory Report.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).